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Full text of "Concrete pile construction / Raymond Concrete Pile Company."

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RAYMOND 

CONCRETE PILE 

COMPANY 



CONCRETE PILE 
CONSTRUCTION 



MORTON D. HULL 

PRESIDE N T 

A. A RAYMOND 

VICE-PRES & GEN'L MG 



JOHN A. GAUGE R 

SECRETARY 

H. R. MOVER 

TREASURER 



MARQUIS EATON, counsel 

MERCHANTS LOAN 
<a TRUST BUILDING 
CHICAGO : U. S. A. 






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THE Raymond Systems of Con- 
crete Piling are fully protected 
by Letters Patent of the United States 
and of all the principal foreign coun- 
tries. Any infringements will be 
prosecuted to the fullest extent of the 
law. 



Ufte Raymond System 



RAYMOND CONCRETE PILES have been used 
successfully, since their introduction in J90J, by a large 
number of architects and engineers of high standing 
throughout the United States, including engineers of the 
United States Government, The most rigid tests have 
been imposed, and the results have been in all cases more 
than satisfactory* Their use has not been confined to 
any particular locality, nor to any particular kind of 
soil, but they have proven of great value and economy 
from New York to Colorado, and in soils of all kinds- 
dry sand, quicksand, clay, mud, silt, and filled ground. 

Concrete piling is undoubtedly the piling of the future 
and will be used more and more as it becomes more widely 
known* For the entire success of concrete piling it is all- 
important that the system used should be based on sound 
mechanical and engineering principles* We believe that 
a thoughtful perusal of this catalogue will convince all 
thorough investigators of the undoubted superiority of the 
Raymond System* We are certain that those who have 
most carefully examined the entire subject of concrete pil- 
ing are most appreciative of the Raymond System and of 
the value of the perfect monolithic pile which is always 
assured by that system and by no other. 



The Method. 

Raymond Concrete Piles are usually put in by either 
of two methods — the jetting method, or the pile core 
method. 

The jetting method is described on page 8 of this 
catalogue. It is adaptable only to soils such as sand, 
quicksand, silt, etc*, which will flow readily under a 
water jet. 

The pile core method, which is the method more 
generally used for foundation work, may be briefly de- 
scribed as follows r A collapsible steel pile core, conical in 
shape (see p. 5), is encased in a thin, tight-fitting metal 
shell. The core and shell are driven into the ground by 
means of a pile driver (preferably fitted with a steam 
hammer). The core is so constructed that when the de- 
sired depth has been reached it is collapsed and loses con- 
tact with the shell, so that it can be easily withdrawn, 
leaving the shell or casing in the ground to act as a mould 
or form for the concrete and to prevent the admixture of 
extraneous matter. When the core is withdrawn, the 
shell or casing is filled with carefully mixed Portland Ce- 
ment Concrete, which is thoroughly tamped during the 
filling process. 



T 




represents the shell, driven in the ground. 
represents the exterior plates, l t in, thick) 
of the pile core. 

represents the stem of the pile core, made 
of extra heavy pipe of diminishing diam- 
eter as the lower end of the pile core is 
approached. 

represents the wedge shaped castings fit- 
ted to the exterior plates. 

represents the corresponding wedges fit- 
ted to the interior stem. This wedge is 
made of a steel casting, which also acts 
as a collar for coupling together the 
various sizes of pipes forming the stem. 

represents hinges linking the exterior 
plates and interior stem of the core. 
Note their position when core is ex- 
panded. 

represents the head of the core, made of 
cast steel hollowed out at the top to re- 
ceive an oak cap block, which receives 
the blow of the hammer. 

keys to keep the exterior plates in place 
when expanded. 

represents cross section, showing opening 
between plates to allow for collapsing. 



Fig. i. Sectional view of Raymond pile core, showing col- 
lapsing and expanding device. (Steam hammer in the leads rest- 
ing upon the core). In this illustration the shell is driven and the 
core expanded. 




Fig. 2. Sectional view of pile core collapsed and ready to 
withdraw from the shell. 

Note that wedges tf and e are no longer in contact, thus 
allowing the plates b to collapse toward centre of core, leaving 
a space between plates h of core and shell r/. Note also posi- 
tion of hinges /'when core is collapsed. 




Fig. 3. Pile core collapsed and partly withdrawn from the shell. The 
shell remains in the ground and forms a mould for the concrete, assuring a 
perfect pile. 

Fig. 4. A completed Raymond Concrete Pile, without reinforcement. 




The above cut represents 
the water jet system of plac- 
ing concrete piles. This sys- 
tem is used only where the 
material penetrated is sand, 
quicksand.siltor soft material 
that will dissolve and flow up 
outside the pile when the 
water is forced through the 
pipe. The first illustration 
on the left shows a nest of 
tapering sheet iron shells. A 
point is fastened to the inner 

shell anda2 -inch pipe, with -4-inch nozzle is attached 
to the center of this point Water is forced through the 
pipe, causing the shell to settle until it comes in con- 
tact with the next shell, and so on until the desired 
depth has been reached. 

The shells are filled with concrete simultaneously with the sinking pro- 
cess, and when necessary, spreaders are attached to keep the whole in 
perfect line with the pipe. 

During a test of this system, made in the Missouri River near Omaha. 
Nebraska, a pile 10 inches in diameter at the bottom. 20 inches at the top, 
wa* sunk to a depth of 75 feet in sand with only 40 pounds of water pressure. 




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The 2 inch pipe is left in the center of the pile and gives it greatly increased lateral strength, 
desired, the lateral strength may be further increased by inserting rods near the outer surface of the 

concrete. 

By th.s method piles of any size up to two feet in diameter at the bottom and four feet at the top 
can be put in through any depth of water and to a suitable penetration in sand or silt. 



The Points of Excellence of the Raymond 

System. 

The superiority of the Raymond Concrete Pile over 
any other form of concrete piling consists in (I) the 
use of a shell or form for each pile, (2) the tapering 
shape of the pile, (3) the ease of reinforcement, (4) the 
comparative rapidity of work, (5) no driving on the con- 
crete. 



The To all who have given the matter careful 

Shell, consideration, it is very evident that the Ray- 
mond System of Concrete Piling is the only one 
that can be depended upon absolutely to meet all require- 
ments, even under adverse conditions* There is airways 
a form or mould for the concrete. What careful architect 
or engineer would place green concrete in quicksand, silt, 
mud, or any porous or unstable soil without protecting it 
with a form? How much more important, therefore, it is 
to protect the concrete which is placed in such material un- 
der ground, where there is often great pressure ! With 
the Raymond Concrete Piles it is always possible to ascer- 
tain that the hole is a perfect one, and thus to be certain 
of a perfect pile. This is not possible with a concrete pile 
which does not use a shell. With the Raymond System 
there is no working in the dark. 

Numerous experiments have been made in an endeavor 
to put in concrete piles without a protecting form, but in 
most instances they have proven unsuccessful. In sand 
and quicksand it was found that the concrete mixed with 
the sand or quicksand to an extent that made their use 
unsafe. In cinders and filled ground, it was found that 
the cement had run out into the surrounding material 
and left only sand and stone instead of concrete. In other 
soil it was found that when the work was finished, while 
the hole was filled, apparently with concrete, it had re- 



quired but two-thirds as much concrete as the cubic ca- 
pacity of the hole* 

The For most foundation work it has been 

Tapering found, by careful experiment, that large 
Shape. tapering piles are the best and most eco- 
nomical. Where it is necessary to use piling* 
the ground is usually of a rather poor character, except 
perhaps on the surface. By using large, tapering concrete 
piles, J 8 in. or 20 in. in diameter at the top and 6 in. or 
8 in. in diameter at the point, a very much less number 
of lineal feet of piling is required than if straight piles are 
used. The superior bearing power of a tapering pile over 
a straight pile is particularly demonstrated where it is 
found that there is a hard surface stratum of ground 
underlaid by softer material. The straight pile will, 
under such conditions, drive comparatively hard till it has 
entirely penetrated the hard stratum above, when it will 
drive very easily for a considerable depth, the friction 
being relatively slight because the pile is straight. On 
the other hand, the tapering pile may, in such soil, drive 
comparatively easily at first, because of the small size of 
the point. But as it is driven further into the ground, it 
will drive harder and harder with each blow of the ham- 
mer, whether it has penetrated entirely through the upper 
stratum or not, since from its tapering shape it has to in- 
crease the size of the hole for the entire distance of its 
penetration into the ground. The full bearing value 
of the soil is thus taken advantage of by a tapering pile, 
and what seems relatively poor soil may be found to have 
a great sustaining value. The value of tapering con- 
crete piles has been attested by the Government Engineers 
at the new Naval Academy buildings at Annapolis, Md., 
where careful tests were made and where large tapering 
Raymond Concrete Piles were used in place of a much 
greater number of very much longer wooden piles. 



Ease of The reinforcement of concrete piles 

Reinforcement. by steel rods is sometimes found desir- 
able for certain uses* This is always 
a simple matter with the Raymond System. Whether 
the shell or casing, which is always used, is jetted into 
place or driven, the insertion of the reinforcing material 
is done when the concrete is put in, and is simple, is in 
plain sight, and requires no unusual skilL 



Rapidity As time is money, and as the largest item 

of of cost of a concrete pile under any system is 

WorK. the labor cost, the comparatively greater ra- 
pidity of work under the Raymond System 
than under any other will commend itself to everyone. As 
speed of work is always more or less governed by local 
conditions, such as the length and spacing of the piles and 
the character of the soil to be penetrated, it is not possible 
to give exact figures suitable to all conditions. But, in 
making comparisons with other methods, one must note 
that in the use of the Raymond Pile Core method, after a 
tapering shell or casing has been driven, there is no slow 
and laborious withdrawing of the pile core, against the 
frictional resistance of the earth. As soon as the shell is 
driven, the core is collapsed or reduced in its diameter for 
its entire length, so as to lose contact with the shell, and 
is easily and quickly lifted out, ready to drive the next 
shell, without waiting for the filling of the one already 
driven. Under favorable conditions fifteen 20-ft. Ray- 
mond Concrete Piles have been put in in two and one-half 
hours* And in moderately hard driving, requiring from 
400 to 500 blows of a No. 2 Vulcan steam hammer, 
thirty-seven 20-ft. Raymond Piles have been put in in 
one day with a single driver. 



11 



The Numerous attempts have been made to 

Driving, build and afterward drive the actual concrete 
pile* But these attempts have met with but 
a limited success. Such piles require in their manufacture 
heavy reinforcement with steel rods, which makes them 
expensive, and when driven they cannot stand a hard 
blow of the hammer without fracture. Under the Ray- 
mond System there is no driving on the concrete. A 
steel pile core, carrying a sheet-metal shell, is driven as 
described on page 4; the core is then withdrawn, and 
the shell afterward filled with concrete, which sets or hard- 
ens in place* 

Economy. 

As Raymond Concrete Piles are made where they are 
used, their cost varies, depending upon the cost of trans- 
porting machinery to the site, the availability of material, 
the character of the soil to be penetrated, the number and 
spacing of the piles, and the general labor conditions of 
each locality. 

While concrete piles necessarily cost more per lineal 
foot than wooden piling, the economy in the use of con- 
crete piles as against wooden piles is very considerable* 
It is due, first, to the much smaller number of concrete 
piles required to carry the necessary load, one concrete pile 
having, on account of its great size and taper, practically 
the carrying capacity of three ordinary wooden piles of 
the same length ; and, secondly, to the great saving of 
excavation and masonry so generally required where 
wooden piles are used. 

The illustrations on pages 14, J 5 and 16 show very 
fully the saving effected. 

As to the economy in the use of Raymond Concrete 
Piles, we refer to the letters of architects contained in this 
catalogue. In the work done for the United States Naval 
Academy at Annapolis, a saving of more than $27,000 



12 



was made over the estimated cost of a foundation using 
wooden piles according to the original plan. The follow- 
ing table, taken from an article by the Inspector in charge 
of this work, published in the Engineering Record of 
March 4 t J 905, shows how this saving was effected : 

COMPARATIVE COST OF WOOD AND CONCRETE PILES. 

Wood nit*. 

2, 193 piles at $9.50 $20,835.50 

4,542 cubic yds. excavation " .40 1,816.80 

3,250 " " concrete.. 8.00 26,000.00 

5,222 lbs. I-beams ........ .04 208.88 

Shoring and pumping 4,000.00 

Total cost $52,861.18 

Co it crefe Piles. 

855 piles at $20,00 $17, 100.00 

1,038 cubic yds. excavation " .40 415.00 

986 " " concrete.. " 8.00 7,888.00 

Shoring and pumping 






Total cost $25,403.00 



Saving by use of Concrete Piles $27,458.18 



13 




COMPARISON OF Ordinary wooden piles average about 12 inches in diameter at the top 

CONCRETE PILE and have 113 square inches of surface. Concrete piles, 20 inches in 

WITH WOODEN PILE diameter at the top. have 314 square inches of surface, or 2.77 times 
that of the wooden pile. The taper of a wooden pile is only about 
three or four inches from top to bottom, while the taper of the concrete pile is from 10 to 14 inches. 
The above illustration gives a fair representation of what may be saved by the use of concrete 
piles. The three concrete piles, each 20 inches in diam ;tar. have a bearing surface of 942 square 
inches, while the five wooden piles, each 12 inches in diameter, which is a fair average have a 
bearing surface of 565 square inches. Note the additional concrete required on top of the wooden 
piles, which must be cut off below water line to insure their permanency. It is also frequently neces- 
sary to drive sheet piling around the trenches in order to make the excavation to water line. 



14 



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16 



Comparison of Head Surfaces. 

On account of its great taper the Raymond Concrete 
Pile has a marked advantage in point of economy over 
all other piles, whether concrete or wood* The following 
comparison of the head surfaces of piles of different diam- 
eters will be of interest : 

Head surface. 
314.16 sq. in. 

113.09 " " 

339.27 " " 



One JO-inch Raymond Pile, 

One 12-inch pile, 
Three 12-inch piles, 



One 14-inch pile, 
Two 14-inch piles, 
One 16-inch pile, 
Two 16-inch piles, 



153.93 
307.86 
201.06 
402.12 



It will be noted that a 20-inch Raymond pile has 
314.16 square inches of head surface, while a 12-inch pile 
has but 113-09 square inches, a 14-inch pile but 153.93 
square inches and a 16-inch pile but 201.06 square inches. 
It will be seen further that three 12-inch piles have but 
339.27 square inches of head surface, or only 25.11 square 
inches more than one 20-inch Raymond pile ; that two 
14-inch piles have but 307.86 square inches, or 6.30 less 
than one 20-inch Raymond pile; and that two 16-inch 
piles have but 402.12 square inches, or only 87.96 more 
than one 20-inch Raymond pile. 

Standard Sizes. 

In all the foregoing illustrations, comparison is made 
with a concrete pile having a diameter of 20 inches at the 
top. If the Raymond method of jetting concrete piles is 
used, the diameter both at the top and at the point of the 
pile can be made to suit the conditions of the work. If, 



17 



however, the pile core method is used, the dimensions of 
the standard sizes of concrete piles are as follows: 

20 ft. long, 20 inches at the top and 6 inches at the point. 

25 " • 20 ' " 8 • 

30 '■ •• 20 • 8 

35 •' 18 8 

40 .. .. 18 .. . 

For all ordinary foundation work where it is not re- 
quired to go to rock or hard pan, the experience of the 
Raymond Concrete Pile Company has demonstrated that 
it is preferable to use the 20-foot length, and if necessary 
to increase the number of piles, rather than to increase 
their length, the shorter pile with its greater taper having 
a greater bearing value per lineal foot of piling than the 
longer pile. Under such conditions three 20-foot piles 
have a greater bearing capacity than two 30-foot piles* 

Carrying Capacity. 

We are often asked to state just what load may safely 
be placed on a Raymond Concrete Pile, It is manifestly 
impossible to furnish a table accurately showing the carry- 
ing capacity of piles, as the soil is not exactly the same in 
any two places- All tests which we have made, or which 
have been made by the architects and engineers on our 
work, indicate, however, that from two to three times as 
much can be placed upon a Raymond Concrete Pile as 
upon an ordinary wooden pile of the same length under 
the same conditions. The following quotation from the 
article by the Inspector in charge of the Naval Academy 
work at Annapolis (see illustrations on pages 27 to 30 of 
this catalogue) bears on this point : 

" The difference in bearing power between a conical and cylin- 
drical pile was shown by an experiment tried on this work at the 
Naval Academy. A Raymond pile core tapered from 6 in. at the 
point to 20 in. at the head, was driven 19 ft. until the penetration 



18 



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under two blows from a 2,000-Ib. hammer falling 20 feet was 7-8 in. 
A wood pile 9 1-2 in. at the point, and 1 1 in. at the head and having 
the same length, 19 ft., as the conical pile, had a penetration of 
5 5-16 in. under two blows of the same hammer, falling 20 ft. This 
pile was driven after the concrete pile and about 2 ft. from it, thus 
showing the comparative bearing power between a conical and a 
cylindrical pile of the same length. 
* *********** 

"Tests were made by loading the [concrete] piles, and it was esti- 
mated that all piles with the same penetration as the test piles would 
have the same bearing power. A 17 1-2-ft. pile driven with a 20-ft. 
core, 6 in. in diameter at the point and 20 in, at the head, having a 
penetration of 1 in. under twenty blows of a steam hammer, was 
loaded with 41 tons. Levels were taken during the loading and at 
intervals for one month. At the end of the month the total settle- 
ment was 0.007 ft. or 3-32 in. 

"Another 28 1-2 ft. pile was driven with a 30- ft. core, 6 in. at 
the point and 20 in. at the head, had a penetration of 5-16 in. under 
ten blows with the steam hammer. The pile was loaded with 42 
tons. Levels were taken during the loading, showing a settlement 
of 0.002 ft., and at intervals for one month, showing no additional 
settlement. This pile was driven outside of the old sea wall in that 
portion of the land reclaimed from the Severn River, which had 
been filled with sand and mud three years previously. 

"A test pile was driven at the northerly end of the building on 
that part of the ground reclaimed from the Severn River. This pile 
was driven with a 30-ft. core, a distance of 22 1-2 ft., having a pene- 
tration of 1 in. for eight blows with the steam hammer. The diam- 
eter of the pile was 6 in, at the point and 16 in. at the head. It was 
loaded with 41 tons and had a settlement of 0.007 ft., or 3-32 in. 
Ten days later it showed a total settlement of 0.009 ft. The load 
was then increased to 45 tons, with no additional settlement, and 
finally, it was increased to 66 1-2 tons, showing a total settlement of 
0.035 ft., or less than 7-16 in. There was no additional settlement 
when the load was removed six days later." (See illustration, page 
30). 

Cost. 

Obviously, it is not possible to make fixed or standard 
prices for Raymond Concrete Piles, as the cost varies 
widely according to the conditions in each particular case; 
and so necessary is a knowledge of such conditions in 



19 



making estimates, that we refrain from giving any fig- 
ures here, even in a general way* We are always glad, 
however, to furnish plans for foundations with Raymond 
Concrete Piles, upon receipt of the general foundation 
plans, with complete data as to soil conditions, loads to be 
carried, etc* We will also, upon request, send a representa- 
tive anywhere at any time, at our own expense, to figure 
on prospective work* 

Equipment. 

The The necessary equipment for construct - 

Pile Core ing concrete piles according to the Raymond 

Method. Pile Core Method, aside from the pile driver 

(which preferably in this work should be 

fitted with a steam hammer), consists of 

1. The Core; 

2. A quantity of sheet iron for making shells, usually 
No. 20 gauge ; 

3. A heavy cornice break for bending the sheet iron 
to shape, with the usual complement of shears and mallets 
for cutting and seaming the iron* 



20 



■1M 







Raymond Pile Core and Shell. A shell is driven for every pile and left in 
the ground to form a perfect mould for the Concrete. 



21 




cased in shell, ready to be driv 







Raymond Pile Core and Shell fully driven. Core will be withdrawn and 

Shell filled with Concrete, The shell makes it possible to see that 

the hole is a clean and perfect one, thus insuring a 

perfect pile. No working in the dark. 



23 




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Raymond Concrete Piles in foundation of Library Building, United States 
Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 



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JOHN PCIItCE 

tMIt OlCBITSCi-i c.c 

*»lt[« MoecRTs. 

PCTCH A -GAOC 



JOHN PEIRCE COMPANY 



BROADWAY CHAMBERS 277 BROADWAY 



(TELEPHONE 3IO* I 



new york May 24,1905, 



Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 

135 Adams Street, 
Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sirs:- 

In regard to the concrete piles, which ^ou 
drove for us in the foundation of the Academic Group 
of buildings at the U, S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, 
Maryland, we are very willing to bear testimony to the 
saving in labor, time and money duo to the substituting 
of concrete piles for wooden piles in these foundations. 

The original plans called for 2200 wooden 
piles cut off below low water with a capping of concrete 
about 3300 cubic yard3-to bring the foundations to grade. 
To get down to the low water level required sheet 
piling, shoring and pumping and the excavation of nearly 
5000 cubic yards of earth. 

By substituting your concrete piles the work 
was reduced to driving 850 concrete piles, excavating 
1000 cubic yards of earth and placing 1000 cubic vards • 
of concrete, 

A comparison of quantities will give at a 
glance the saving in time and money achieved. The piles 
stood the severe test of the U. S. Government officials 
without the slightest indication of failure. 

The foundations as built are eminently 
satisfactory to us, to the Architect and to the IT. S. 
Government officers. 

Yours truly, 

John Peirce Company. 



Vice-President. 



VS 



31 




A trench of Raymond Concrete Piles for wall of the Crunden- Martin 
Woodenware Company's warehouse, St. Louis, Mo. 

32 











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MAURAN. RUSSELL L GARDEN 

ARCHITECTS. 

Chemical Builtiin6. 

ST LOUIS 



"MARGV STLOUtS 



May 23rd, .1905. 



Raymond Concrete PUe Company, 

135 Adams Street, Chicago. 
Bear Sirs:-- 

We take great pleasure in expressing to you our apprecia- 
tion of the utility, effectiveness and structural character and 
quality of your concrete pile work installed at the Crunden-Mar- 
tin Woodenware Company's new plant in this city. We have done 
considerable pile work in St. Louis and have found nothing which 
so thoroughly fits looal conditions as your concrete pile. 

We take pleasure in expressing also our appreciation of 
your courtesy and willingness to assist in overcoming- difficul- 
ties. We deem the use of your piles effects a considerable sav- 
ing over other similar forms of construction and the entire sys- 
tem has our commendation. 



Very truly yours, 



34 




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JCNKCY.MUNDIE SJCN8EN 

ARCHITECTS 

i4oi HI w vo»« iirr iun.P'"4 

171 LASALLE STREET 

CHICAGO 

subject- Klots Bide. 

Chic ago, May 22,1905 
Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 
Gentlemen :- 

Complying with your verbal request of today, we 
take pleasure in expressing our views In writing, of the concrete 
piles at the Klotz Bldg: When we first considered foundations for 
this building, we were faced with the bad condition of the soil 
which was very wet and soft and contained considerable quick sand. 
Inasmuch as it was unnecessary to put in a basement, we felt that 
it would be economy to use your concrete piles, which was done with 
economy and satisfactory results. 

Yours respectfully, 




37 




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RICHARD3 WCARTy T BVLFORO 
ARCH IT6CT5 



May 19th, 1905. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 

135 Adams St. , „ 

Chicago, 111* 
Gentlemen: - 

Replying to your inquiry of the 13th, would say, it af- 
fords us pleasure to* state, that the concrete piling you put 
in for us under the foundation of the Eldridge & Higgins 
Company's warehouse at Marietta, Ohio, has proven perfectly 
satisfactory in every respect. 

We were confronted when we began the construction of 
this building v/ith a very serious proposition. It was lo- 
cated on filled ground over what had formerly been a swamp. 
We could not use wood piling on account of the fact that we 
could not get it below the water level. After careful in- 
vestigation we concluded to try your piling and the result has 
been extremely satisfactory. We consider that the use of your 
piling has saved us at least $3000 in concrete work. Th« build- 
ing has been in use for several months, is heavily loaded and 
there is not the least indication of a settlement in any part 
of it, "although about one half of the building is on piling 
and the other half on solid ground outside of the limits of 
the filing and the swampy soil. We consider this even a better 
test than had the foundation been uniform over the entire area. 

We shall bear you in mind for future work and if 
we can be of any service to you at any time we would be glad 
to do so. 

Yours very truly, 

richards, Mccarty & bttlford. 

Per. 

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41 




East end of power station of the Union Electric Company, Dubuque, 
rests upon fifty 20-ft. Raymond Concrete Piles. 
42 



Stack 




Machinery Warehouse, Chicago, built upon Raymond Concrete Pile foun- 
dation early in 1905, in soil of mud, clay and quicksand. No settlement. 



43 







Raymond Concrete Piles in foundation of United States Express Co. Bldg., 
West 23d Street, New York City. Ernest Flag^, Architect. 

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The above illustration shows two designs for concrete pile trestle work. 

Fig. i Shows Raymond Concrete Piles to the surface of the ground and covered with a 
reinforced concrete pier. 

Fig. 2 Shows reinforced Raymond Concrete Piles extending to desired height of trestle, 
with wood or concrete cap securely bolted to top of piles. The piles are sway braced with a 
reinforced concrete web. The piles are 20 in. in diameter from the ground line up. In this con- 
struction the reinforcing rods run from near the bottom of the piles to the top, extending into the 
cap. 



47 







6"dia 



Concrete pile foundations for abutments and piers. In abutments, the 
cofferdam and the excavating and refilling with concrete will be saved, as 
concrete piles can be driven at any point above low water mark without 
fear of decay. By their use, work may be begun on the abutment founda- 
tion at any time regardless of whether the river or creek is at its highest 
or its lowest stage. 



48 



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